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Adhan (AADHAN,ADHAAN)
The call for the daily prayers are called Adhan. The person who calls the Adhan is called a Mu´adhin. A Mu´adhin calls the Adhan five times a day before Muslims are to perform their daily Salah (Prayer). The Adhan is composed of specific words and phrases to be recited loudly in the Arabic language so that the neighbors can recognize the time schedule for the prayers.
A.H.
It means After Hijrah. It is the reference used in the Islamic calender, instead of A.D. which is used in the Christian calender.
Ahl al-Bait
Ahl al-Bait literally means ´the people of the house´, a polite form of addressing the members of the family, including husband and wife. The words occur in the Holy Quran when angels came to give glad tidings to Prophet Abraham (S.A.W.) of a son at an old age. See Surah Houd (11:73).
Ahl al-Dimmah (or Dhimmis)
They are the non-Muslim subjects of an Islamic state who have been guaranteed protection of their rights- life, property and practice of their religion, etc.
Ahl al-Hadith
Refers to the group of scholars in Islam who pay relatively greater importance to ´traditions´ than to other sources of Islamic doctrine such as qiyas, and tend to interpret the traditions more literally and rigorously. The term has also come to be used lately for a group of Muslims in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent who are close to the Hanbali school in theology, and claim to follow no single school on legal matters.
Ahl al-Kitab
Literally ´People of the Book,´ refers to the followers of Divine Revelation before the advent of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.).
Ahmad
Ahmad is another name of Muhammad (S.A.W.). See Holy Quran, As-Saff (61:6). See Muhammad for more details.
Al-Akhirah
(After-Life, Hereafter, Next World). the term embraces the following ideas. That man is answerable to God. That the present order of existence will some day come to an end. That when that happens,God will bring another order into being in which He will resurrect all human beings, gather them together and examine their conduct, and reward them with justice and mercy. That those who are reckoned good will be sent to Paradise whereas the evil-doers will be consigned to Hell. That those who are reckoned good will be sent to Paradise whereas the evil-doers will be consigned to Hell.
Ahl ar-ra´y
It means people of opinion. It is refers to people that are consulted on Islamic matters. These people are highly learned in Islam.
Ahzab
It means parties. Ahzab is used to describe the different tribes that fought the Muslims in the Battle of the Ditch in 627 C.E., 5 A.H..
Al-asharatu mubashshirun
Ten people that were given the glad tiddings of assurance of entering Paradise. They were Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Abdur Rahman ibn Awf, Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah, Talhah ibn Ubaydullah, az-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, Sa´d ibn Abi Waqqas, Sa´id ibn Zayd.
Al-hamdu lillahi rabbil ´alamin
This is a verse from the Qur´an that Muslims recite and say many times per day. Other than being recited daily during prayers, a Muslim reads this expression in every activity of his daily life. The meaning of it is: "Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds." A Muslim invokes the praises of Allah before he does his daily work; and when he finishes, he thanks Allah for His favors. A Muslim is grateful to Allah for all His blessings. It is a statement of thanks, appreciation, and gratitude from the creature to his Creator.
Alim ( AALIM )
A learned person in Islam, scholar.
Allah (SWT)
The true name for the creator of the Universe is Allah. He is the Merciful, the Beneficent, the Knowledgeable, the Protector, the Mighty, the God, the Provider, the Exalted, the Lord, the All-Knowing, the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing, the Magnificent, the Wise, the Loving, the First, the Last, and the Eternal. The Qur´an mentions around 100 beautiful names for Allah through which Muslims may understand and recognize Him, and His responsibilities for the whole Universe.
Allahu akbar (ALLAHOO AKBAR, ALLAHU AKBER, ALLAHOO AKBER, ALLAH AKBAR)
This statement is said by Muslims numerous times. During the call for prayer, during prayer, when they are happy, and wish to express their approval of what they hear, when they slaughter an animal, and when they want to praise a speaker, Muslims do say this expression of Allahu Akbar. Actually it is most said expression in the world. Its meaning: "Allah is the Greatest." Muslims praise Allah in every aspect of life; and as such they say Allahu Akbar.
Amin (AAMIN, AAMEEN, AMEEN)
It means custodian or guardian. Someone who is loyal or faithful.
Amir
It means leader or commander.
Amir al-mumineen
It means commander of the belivers. This title was given to the Khalifah.
Ansar (ANSAAR)
It means helpers. These were the people of Madinah who responded to the Prophet´s call to Islam and offered Islam a city-state power.
Aqabah
A place just outside of Mecca, in Mina where the first Muslims from Yathrib Madinah pledged allegiance to the Prophet in the year 621 C.E.. A similar meeting took place the next year when more Muslims from Yathrib pledged their allegiance to the Prophet.
´Aqeeda
Literally means belief. In Islamic terms, it means the following six articles of faith: 1. Belief in Allah, the One God. 2. Belief in Allah´s angels. 3. Belief in His revealed Books. 4. Belief in His messengers. 5. Belief in the Day of Judgement. 6. Belief in Fate and the Divine Decree.
Arafat
A plain north of Mecca. It is on this plain that humanity will be raised on the Day of Judgement for questioning and judgement. During the Hajj on the ninth day of the month of Zhu-l-Hijjah, Muslim pilgrims gather on this plain for one day.
Asabiyyah
It means tribal loyalty, nationalism.
Assalamu alaikum (ASSALAMO ALAIKUM,ASALAMO ALAIKUM)
This is an expression Muslims say whenever they meet one another. It is a statement of greeting with peace. The meaning of it is: "Peace be upon you." Muslims try to establish peace on earth even through the friendly relation of greeting and meeting one another. The other forms are: "Assalamu ´Alalikum Wa Rahmatullah," which means:"May the peace and the Mercy of Allah be upon you," and "Assalamu Alalikum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh," which means :"May the peace, the mercy, and the blessings of Allah be upon you."
Asr
The late afternoon obligatory Salah, prayer.
Astaghfirullah (ASTAGHFIRALLAH)
This is an expression used by a Muslim when he wants to ask Allah forgiveness. The meaning of it is: "I ask Allah forgiveness." A Muslim says this phrase many times, even when he is talking to another person. When a Muslim abstains from doing wrong, or even when he wants to prove that he is innocent of an incident he uses this expression. After every Salah (payer), a Muslim says this statement three times.
A´uzu billahi minashaitanir rajim
This is an expression and a statement that Muslims have to recite before reading to Qur´an, before speaking, before doing any work, before making a supplication, before taking ablution, before entering the wash room, and before doing many other daily activities. The meaning of this phrase is: "I seek refuge from Allah from the outcast Satan." Allah is the Arabic name of God. Satan is the source of evil and he always tries to misguide and mislead people. The Qur´an states that Satan is not an angel but a member of the Jinn, which are spiritual beings created by Allah. So the belief that Satan is a fallen angel is rejected in Islam.
Awqiyyah
It means weight, like the ones used to weigh items.
Awrah
Parts of the body that are not supposed to be exposed to others. For men this is from the navel to the knee. For the women it is all of her body except the hands, feet, and face.
Ayah (AYA,AYYAH)
The Arabic meaning of Ayah is a miracle and a sign. The Qur´an is considered to be a miracle itself. Each verse or sentence is called an Ayah or a miracle. The plural of Ayah is called Ayat, which means miracles.
Ayat
It is the plural form of Ayah.
Ayat-ul-kursi
Surah Baqara, Ayah 256 of the Quran. It is called the throne of the Quran.
Al-A`rab
Al-A`rab signifies the bedouin - whether of the desert or the countryside - in the vicinity of Madina. For a long time they had followed a policy of opportunism with regard to the conflict between Islam and unbelief. However, as Islam established its sway over the greater part of Hijaz and Najd and the power of the tribes hostile to Islam began to weaken, they saw their interests lay in entering the fold of Islam. For details see Surah 9.
Ashab al-A`raf
Ashab al-A`raf (Heights) will be the people who are neithe righteous enough to enter Paradise nor wicked enough to be cast into Hell. They will, therefore, dwell at a place situated between the two.
Ashab al-Suffah
Ashab al-Suffah consisted of about three or four hundred Companions who spent most of their time in the company of the Prophet (S.A.W.). They acquired knowledge and had dedicated themselves wholly to serving Islam.
Al-Asma al-Husna
Al-Asma al-Husna, literally meaning the ´most excellent names´ used of God, express His greatness and paramountcy, holiness, purity, and the perfection and absoluteness of all His attributes.
Athar
Sayings of the Sahabah, the companions of the Prophet (S.A.W.).
AALI ‘IMRAN: "The family of ‘Imran".
‘Imran was the father of Mariam (Mary), the mother of the Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be upon them. Surah 3 of the Holy Qur’an.
ABAA WASS STAKBARA MA’ AL-TASDEEQ (KUFR AL):
A Major disbelief. Refusing to bow to Allah due to pride, even though acknowledging the Divine Truth. It is the type of Kufr that Iblis committed. Those Muslims who do not pray are committing this same sin. See Kufr.
ABADA
Forever. See Khalideen.
ABASA
"He frowned". The blind man that is referred to in this surah is Abdallah ibn Umm Maktoum. Surah 80 of the Holy Qur’an.
ABD
A male slave, a slave of Allah.
ABU BAKR, MAY ALLAH BE PLEASED WITH HIM
Also spelled Abi Bakr. He was one of the greatest companions of Muhammad, May Allah bless him and grant him peace. His full name is Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. The Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called him as-Siddiq because he always believed in Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, without any reservation. He was the first of the four rightly guided Khalifaas (al-Khulafaa al-Rashideen) from 1113 AH. The other three, may Allah bless them, were: 1). Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him 13-23 AH.2). Uthman ibn ‘Affan, may Allah be pleased with him, 24-36 AH. 3). Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, 36-40 AH. See Khalifaa.
ABU LAHAB
Fiercest enemy of Islam and paternal uncle of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Surah 111 of the Holy Qur’an. Known as Suratul Masad.
ABU AL-QASIM
It is the Kunya (see Kunya) of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is prohibited to have the Kunya of the Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See Sahi Bukhari, Hadith 205, Vol, 8. Sahi Muslim, Kitab-ul Adab.
AAD
An Ancient tribe that lived after the Prophet Nooh (Noah), peace be on him, in the village of Ahqaf in Yemen. It was a very prosperous tribe, but was rebellious against Allah Subhana Ta’ala and their Prophet Houd, peace be on him. So Allah wa Ta’ala destroyed it with a fatal westerly windstorm (Ad-Dabour). See Holy Qur’an, Houd (11):50-60.
ADAM (PEACE BE ON HIM)
The first man and a Prophet. He was created neither in paradise nor on Earth, but in the realm of Allah’s mercy. From there he was sent to Jannah (Paradise), from where later he was sent down to Earth. He had many offsprings, the most famous ones are Habil (Abel ) and Qaabil (Cain). See Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqarah (2):30-39, al-Maidah (5) 30-34.
ADHAAB
Punishment, especially the punishment for failing to obey Allah Ta’ala. See Holy Qur’an, Ale ‘Imran (3):106.
ADHKHAR
A special type of good-scented grass found in the Hijaz area of Saudi Arabia. Also known as Idhkhir.
ADIAT (AL)
"The coursers". "Coursers" refer to war horses when they charge, stamp their hooves, breathe heavily and snort in the course of the confusion of battle. Surah 100 of the Holy Qur’an.
AFAREET
Evil jinns who are large, powerful and very crafty. Singular: Ifreet. See Holy Qur’an, An-Naml (27):39.
AFLAHA
Third person singular of Falaah. See Falaah.
AFUW
Al-’Afuwo": The forgiver or pardoner, in the sense obliterating the memory of wrongdoings from one’s mind. One of the ninety-nine attributes of Allah Ta’ala.
AHAD
1). One. 2). The Incomparable. When referring to Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala, this means: a. That He has no comparison in His Essence or in any of His Attributes. b. that there is no deity (worthy of worship) but Allah.
AHADEETH
Sayings and traditions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, Singular: Hadith.
AHKAM
Literally means "orders". In Islam, orders are subdivided into six distinct categories: 1). Compulsory, (Fard) = severe punishment if disobeyed. This takes two forms: a). Fard´ain = Compulsory on every person, e.g. Salat. b). Fard Kifaya = Compulsory on at least one person in the community, e.g. Salat al-janaza. 2). Necessary but not cumpulsory (Wajib), e,g. Salat al-Juma´. 3). Recommended but not compulsory (Mustahab), e.g. Sunnah prayers, Sadaqa. 4). Legal and allowed (Halal), e.g. eating good food, marriage. 5). Dissaproved of, but not forbidden (Makrouh), e.g. smoking tobacco. 6). Forbidden (Muharram, Haram), e.g. Zina (fornication and adultery).
AHLUL KITAB
Literally means "the People of the Scripture". It refers to Yahoud (Jews), Nasara (Christian) and Saabe-een (Sabians). Those who believe in the trinity and that Jesus is God and or the Son of God are considered as Kuffar (unbelievers), even though they are Ahlul Kitab. See Maghdoub and Daaleen. See Holy Qur’an, Yusuf Ali, Al-Maida (5):19, 75-76. See Holy Qur’an, M. Pickhall, Al-Maida (5):17, 72-73.
AHLUL KITAB WA SUNNAH
Literally means "The people of the Book (the Holy Qur’an) and the sayings and traditions, (the Sunnah of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace)." This refers to the people who strive to follow exactly the teachings of the Holy Qur’an and Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, without any deviations.
AHQAF (AL)
Name of Village in Yemen. Home of the people of ‘Ad. See "Ad. Surah 46 of the Holy Qur’an.
AHZAB
"The Clans". A famous battle between the early Muslims and the rejectors, in which the Muslims, under the directions of Salman al-Farisi, dug a trench around the city of al-Madinah al-Munawarha to thwart the advance of the unbelievers in 5AH. The battle is also known as the Battle of the Khandaq(Battle of the Trench). See Holy Qur’an, An-Nur (24):55, Al-Ahzab (33):920.Surah 33 of the Holy Qur’an.
AISHA (MAY ALLAH BE PLEASED WITH HER):
Daughter of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him ) and wife of Muhammad, may Allah bless and grant him peace. AJAL: 1). Yes. 2). Appointed time. In Islamic terminology it refers to the (appointed) time of death. Allah Ta’ala says in the Holy Qur’an that He will not, (and therefore no-one else can), alter the time of someone’s death. Muslims reject such statements as "the doctor saved his life", or "he would have lived longer if..." Such statements are made by those who do not believe in Allah or do not have the understanding of the necessity to believe in Allah, thus exposing themselves and saying that the power over life and death is within human capability.
AJTANIBOU
"Leave it!" Gambling and intoxicants were prohibited by Allah in the strongest terms possible, "Ajtanibou!". It is the highest level of forbidding what is haram. Haram = not only haram, but also a direct prohibition ordered by Allah Ta’ala. "Ajtanibou!" = not only haram, but also a direct command not to approach or be near it for any reason whatsoever. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqarah (2):219, Al-Maida (5):93.
AJZA
Parts. The Holy Qur’an is divided into thirty parts. Singular: Juz.
AJWAH
A kind of Dates.
AKALA
Literally means "ate". In Islamic theology, it usually means: 1). devouring what is forbidden, whether it be mental, moral, social, physical or spiritual. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Maida (5):69. 2). Spiritual "eating" of the good things in the hereafter in Jannah (Paradise). See Holy Qur’an, Ar-Ra’d (13):35.
AKBAR (SHIRK AL):
Major Shirk. This is divided into four categories: 1). Shirk Ad-Du’a. 2). Shirk al-Niyyah wal Iraada wal Qasd. 3). Shirk-al-Ta’a. 4). Shirk al-Muhabbah. For full explanation see Shirk. AKHIRA: The Hereafter. Not the life in the Barzakh (the life of the grave), but the life in Jannah (Paradise) or the Nar (Hellfire).
AALA (AL)
"The Most High". Surah 87 of the Holy Qur’an.
ALAIKA SALAAM
Peace be on him. This is said whenever the name of a malak (an Angel), a nabi (a Prophet) or a rasool (a Messenger) of Allah is mentioned, except for the name or title of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (Sallahu ‘aliehe wa sallam). See Sallahu ‘alaihe wa sallam.
ALAM
World. Singular of ‘Alameen. See ´Alameen.
ALAMEEN
Takes its root word from "Alam", meaning world. The Qur’anic meaning of ‘Alameen varies from verse to verse, depending on the context in which it is placed. 1). In Surah 1:2, it means "of all the worlds". 2). In Surah 3:42, it means "of all nations" 3). In Surah 3:97, it means "of all created beings". "Wa ma arsalna illa rahmatan lil ‘Alameen." (We have not sent you [O Muhammad] but as a mercy to all creation.) Surah Al-Anbiya 21:107.
ALAQ
"The clot of blood". Also called Surat Iqraa. Ayat (verse) 1-5 of this Surah were the first five verses revealed to Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. They were revealed to him through the Holy Spirit, the Angel Jibreel (Gabriel), peace be on him, in the Ghar Hiraa (cave of Hiraa) in Jabal an-Nur. See Surah 96 of the holy Qur’an.
AL-AQIQ
A valley 7km west of al-Madinah al-Munawarah.
AL-’ARSH
Throne of Allah al-Malik al-Qudus, al-Aziz al-Hakeem. See Surah Taha (20):5
AL-GHURRU AL-MUHAJJALUN
A name that will be given to those Muslims who, on the Day of Resurrection, will have parts of their bodies shining due to their perfect ablution practices. Read Bukhari, Hadith 138, Vol. 1.
AL-HAMD
1). All praise (is to Allah). 2). Another name for Suratul-Fatiha. Surah 1 of the Holy Qur’an.
AL-HAMDU LILLLAH
Praise be to Allah. Should be said on all occasions and especially after sneezing. Abu Huraira related that the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: ‘When any one of you sneezes, then he should say "Al-Hamdulillah", and his brother or friend (who listens) should respond by saying "Yarhamuk Allah", (Allah have mercy upon you). and then the person sneezing should reciprocate by saying "Yahdikumullah wa yuslahu balakum" ( may Allah guide you and improve your condition). Sahi Bukhari.
ALI IBN ABI TALIB (MAY ALLAH BE PLEASED WITH HIM)
One of the greatest companions of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The last of the four rightly guided Khalifs (al-Khulafaa al-Rashideen), may Allah bless with him, he ruled from 36AH to 40AH. He was martyred while praying in the Masjid (mosque). See Khalifaa
ALIF LAM MIM
Abbreviated letters, called al-Muqtta’at, revealed at the start of certain Suwar of the Holy Qur’an.
AL-INFITAR
"The Cleaving". Surah 82 of the Holy Qur’an.
AL-JUHFA
Miqat of the people of Shaam. See Miqat.
AL-KURSI
The seat of Allah, Al-Hayyu al-Qayoum. The size of His seat extends over all the heavens and earth. Even though it is such a huge creation, it is still much smaller than the ‘Arsh (the Throne) of Allah Ta’ala. Surah 2:225 is called Ayatul Kursi. See Surah al-Baqara (2):255 see ‘Arsh.
ALLAH
The name of the Creator of the universe and all that it contains.It is derived from the word "Ilah" which means "the One deserving all worship", the One to whom all hearts submit in love, fear, reverence, desire, trust and sincerity, and to whom all limbs submit in all forms of worship such as prayers, supplications, sacrifices, invocations, etc. Allah has decreed that His Holy name is "Allah" and has ordained that all His creation call upon Him by the name of "Allah". In the original Bible and Taurat (in the Hebrew text), the name "Allah" is used. In Islam, the name God is not used for fear of misunderstanding. To the Christians, it will give them a mental image of a human being (the Prophet Jesus, son of Mary, Peace be on him), to some Hindus it creates a mental picture of an animal (a cow). To the Zoroastrians it creates a picture of a fire. Allah, there is none but He, King of universe, the Creator and Originator of all that there is, He has no beginning nor end. He was not begotten nor did He beget. He is not like anything.
ALLAH HUMMA
"O Allah". This is said when invoking Allah Ta’ala. For example, "Allah humma atina fid dunya hasana wa fil akhirati hasana wa qin a ‘adhab an-nar". "O Allah, give us the good of this world and the good of the Hereafter and preserve us from the Hellfire."
ALLAH TA’ALA
Allah the Exalted. See Subhana wa Ta’ala.
AL-’UZZA
A famous goddess in the Hijaz used to be worshipped by the pagan Arabs in the pre-Islamic period of ignorance. See Holy Qur’an, An-Najm (53):19.
AL-YAS (PEACE BE ON HIM)
Elisha. A Prophet of Islam. See Holy Qur’an, Al-An’aam (6):36 Saad (38):48.
AMAH
A female slave.
AL-AMANAH
The trust or the moral reponsibility or honesty, and all the duties which Allah has ordained.
AMIN
O Allah, accept our invocation.
AMMA BA´DU
An expression used for separating an introductory main topic in a speech; the introductory topic is usually concerned with Allah´s Praises and glorification. Literally it means, "whatever comes after." It is generally translated as "then after" or "to proceed."
AMIRUL MUMINEEN
Commander of the Faithful. Title of the leader in the Islamic nation after the death of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The first four faithful commanders of the new Islamic nation were called Al-Khulafaa al-Rashideen, "the rightly-guided Khulafas" (see Khalifaa). They were given this title because they carried out their duties perfectly according to the Holy Qur’an and the practices and teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
AMR BILL MA’ROOF
Enjoining the good. The full version is "Amr bill Ma’roof wa nahi ‘anil Munkar". (enjoining the good and forbidding the evil).
AN’AAM
The Cattle". Surah 6 of the Holy Qur’an.
ANAZA
A stick with a spearhead. Read Sahi Bukhari, Hadith 583, Vol.1.
ANBIYAA (AL)
"The Prophets". Surah 21 of the Holy Qur’an.
ANFAAL (AL)
"The Spoils of War." Surah 8 of the Holy Qur’an.
ANKABOOT (AL)
"The Spider". The Spider who made its web over the Ghar Thaur (Cave of Thaur) where Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, hid from the Quraish on his way to Madinah. Surah 29 of the Holy Qur’an.
ANSAAB
Idols. See Holy Qur’an, Al-baqara (2):219.
ANSAR
Literally means "Helpers". 1). The Inhabitants of Madinah, the Aus and the Khazraj tribes, who embraced Islam and supported the Muslim emigrants against the pagan Quraish and other tribes who made war on the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See Ansari. 2). Helpers of the Prophet Isa (the Prophet Jesus, son of Mary), peace be on him. See Holy Qur’an, As-Saff (61):14 Singular: Ansari
ANSARI
An inhabitant of Madina who embraced Islam and supported the Muslim emigrants who had fled from persecution in Makkah and other places during the time of greater repression against the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his companions, may Allah be pleased with them all. See Holy Qur’an, Suwar Al-Hashr (59):9, Al-Munafiqun (63):7.
AQEEEDA
Literally means belief. In Islamic terminology, it means articles of faith. There are six articles of faith. They are: 1. Belief in Allah. We Believe that: 1). He is the Lord and Creator of all that there is. 2). He is the True God and All other deities are false. 3). He is One,and has no associates (son or otherwise). 4). He alone has the knowledge of the Unseen and of the Hour. 5). In His Names and Attribute. 6). He never came down to earth in any shape or form. 7). He is Everlasting, He did not beget nor was He begotten and He is not like anything. 2. His Mala’ika (angels). We believe: 1). They are His honored servants. 2). They act only by His command. 3). They are made out of light. 4). They obey all of Allah’s commands. 5). All angels are good and incapable of wrong doing (We do not believe in the notion of a "Fallen angel".)6). They may be seen by some men only by Allah’s consent. See Malaikah. 3. His Revealed books. We believe He has sent down books with every messenger .The original books of Allah that were sent to the Prophets Abraham, Moses and Jesus no longer exist in their original form. We believe only in the original Taurat (Torah), Zaboor (Psalms) and Ingeel (Gospel). The Holy Qur’an that was revealed to the Seal of the Prophets, Mohammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is the only perfect book of Allah that is free from corruption and is a true source of light for all mankind. 4. His Rusull ( Messengers). We believe. The Messengers of Allah Ta’ala include Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, Abraham, Noah, Jesus , Moses, peace be upon them all. Allah´s Messengers are human beings. Muhammad’s message encompasses and abrogates all the messages of all the other messengers, since Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is the last Messenger and the Holy Qur’an is the Last Message from Allah before the end of the world. 5. Belief in the Day of Judgment. We believe. 1). In the Final Day, which is the day of Judgment. 2). There will be no intercessors except by Allah’s leave. 3). Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant Him peace,will be given permission to intercede on behalf of all those who believed in Allah and the Last Day and who submitted their will to Him, that is, those who are "Muslims" (Muslim = One who submits his or her will to Almighty Allah). 4). Heaven is for the believers and Hell is for the rejecters. 5). In the fount (Kawthar) of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. 6). Our book of deeds will be given to us in our right or left hand (to the believers and unbelievers respectively). 6. Belief in Fate and the Divine Decree. We believe: 1). In fate, whether good or bad, which Allah has measured and ordained for all his creatures. 2). His decree cannot be changed except by his leave. 3). Allah has granted man the free will to choose between good and evil. Thus, there is no excuse for wrong action in the sight of Allah Ta’ala.4). All that is to happen until the Day of Judgment is already written down on the Lauh al-Mahfudh. O Allah! Let me not die except in Islam, and raise me on the Day of Judgment only as a Muslim. Ameen! Singular: ‘Aqaaid.
AQIQ (AL)
A valley in Al-Madina about seven kilometers west of it
AQIQAH
It is the Sacrificing of one or two sheeps on the occasion of the birth of a child, as a token of gratitude to Allah. See Sahi Al-Bukhari, The Book of ´Aqiqah, Vol. 7, Page No. 272.
AQRA HALQA
It is just an exclamatory expression, the literal meaning of which is not meant always. It expresses disapproval.
ARAAK (AL)
A tree from Siwak is made. See Siwak.
ARAF (AL)
" The Heights". Surah 7 of the Holy Qur’an.
ARAFAT
A pilgrimage site, about 25km east of Makkah al-Mukarramah. Standing on ‘Arafah on the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah and staying there from mid-day to sunset is the essence of the Hajj (the Pilgrimage).
AL-ARBA´AH
The four compilers of - Abu Da´ud, Nasa´i, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah.
AREEM
May be translated as dams or embankment. The ‘Areme (dam) that is referred to in Surah 34:16 is the Maarib Dam whose traces still exist in Yemen.
ARKAN
Pillars. This refers to the indispensable pillars of Islam. There are five Arkan of Islam: 1. Shahadatain, bearing witness. All Muslims must believe in and utter the Shahadatain. 1). The first Shahada is: Ashhadu an la illaha illal ‘lah. (I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.) 2). The Second Shahada: Ashhadu anna Muhammadar Rasoolullah. ( I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.) Singular: Shahada = bearing witness, Dual: shahadatain = Bearing witness. 3. Seeam, fasting. Also spelled as Saum. To fast in the month of Ramadan. 4. Zakat, wealth dues. To pay 2.5% of one’s yearly savings to the poor and needy Muslims. The Zakat is compulsory on all Muslims who have saved (at least) the equivalent of 85g of 24 carat gold at the time when the annual Zakat payment is due. Zakat is also due on other things such as silver, animals, crops, etc. For full explanation on Zakat refer to the relevant books written on the subject. 5. Hajj, pilgrimage. To perform the pilgrimage to the Holy City of Makkah at least once in one’s lifetime (if one is able to afford it).
ARSH
The throne of Allah. The ‘Arsh is the immense starless heaven that encompasses the visible Universe, which is referred to as the Kursi. Sayyidina ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the relation of the Kursi to the ‘Arsh is like that of a small ring lying in the middle of a vast desert. This is why ‘Arsh is correctly translated as ‘Throne’ and Kursi as ‘Seat’ or Footstool’,. although sometimes those who are unaware of the existence and nature of the ‘Arsh translated Kursi as ‘Throne’.
AS
See ‘Alaihe as-Salam.
ASBAB AN-NAZUL
The specific reason and circumstances for the revelation of various verses of the Holy Qur’an. For example: Surat at-Tauba, Ayat 79-80 (the story of Abu ‘Aqeel). In 9AH Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked for contributions to finance his Tabuk expedition. Being very poor, but still yearning to contribute, Abu ‘Aqeel decided to offer his services, which lasted from dusk till dawn. He received only two handfuls of barley in payment. He took the entire payment and presented it to Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. A group of Munafiqeen (Hyprocrites) saw this and started to deride Abu ‘Aqeel by saying. "Look at Abu ‘Aqeel, does he think that Allah is in need of such a pathetic donation?" Allah Ta’ala become so angry with them that He immediately sent down the Holy Spirit Jibreel (The Angel Gabriel), peace be on him, to reveal Surah 9:79:80 to Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
ASABAH
All male relatives of a deceased person from the father´s side.
ASGHAR (KUFR AL)
A minor disbelief. Being unappreciative of what Allah Ta’ala has provided. See Kufr
ASGHAR (SHIRK AL)
A Minor Shirk: 1. Shirk ar-Rea’. It is carrying out a religious act for worldly gains and not for the pleasure of Allah. For example, giving Zakat (charity) for the sake of fame or praise. 2. Shirk At-Tasmee’: a). Swearing by other than Allah. b). To say: "I depend on Allah and you." c). To depend on any man. d). To say: "Oh Allah, by the honour of Muhammad do such and such for me." e). Any belief, saying or action that might lead to Al-Shirk al-Akbar (Major Shirk). See Shirk.
ASHAB AS-SUNNA
The Compilers of the Prophetic Ahadith on Islamic Jurisprudence.
ASHAB AL-MAIMANA
Literally means "companions of the Right", the righteous people. On the Day of Resurrection, Allah Ta’ala will sort out the good and evil. They will be divided into three groups: Muqarraboon - the exalted class, those who are nearest to Allah Ta’ala. Ashab al-Maimana - the righteous people, those who are destined to enter Jannah (Paradise). Ashab al-Ma-Mash’ama - literally means "companions of the left"; these people will be the inheritors of the Nar (Hellfire). For full explanations of; Muqarraboon, see Surah Al-Waqi’ah (56): 11-26; Ashab al-Maimana, see Surah 56:27-40. Ashab al-Mash’ama see Surah Al-Waqi’ah (56):41-56.
ASHAB AL-MASH’AMA
Literally means "companions of the left", the evil-doers. These people will be the companions of the Nar (Hellfire) on the Day of Resurrection. For full explanation: See Ashab al-Maimana. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Waqi’a (56):41-56.
ASHABUL AIKA
Dwellers of the wood. Another name for the Midianites. See Madyan. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Hijr (15):78, Al-Shu’ara (26):176-191.
ASHARAFUL MURSALEEN
The Most Honoured of all the Prophets. One of the titles of the Holy Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
ASH-SHAJARA
A famous place between Madinah and Makkah.
ASHURA
The 10th day of Muharram (the first month of the lunar Islamic calendar). It is a Sunnah to fast on the 9th and 10th of Muharram to commemorate the freeing of the people of Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be on him, from the Fir’aun (Pharoah) of Egypt. Read Sahi Bukhari, Hadith 222, Vol. 3.
ASIYA
The wife of Fir’aun (Pharoah). She is one of the four greatest created females, the other three being; 1). Mariam (Mary), may Allah be pleased with her, the mother of the Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on him. 2). Khadija, may Allah be pleased with her, the first wife of Muhammad, may Allah bless and grant him peace. 3). Fatima, may Allah be pleased with her, the daughter of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
ASLAHA
Reformed, mended, corrected, improved ways of behavior. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Anbiyaa 921):90.
ASMA WA SIFAAT (TAWHEED AL)
Unity of Names and Attributes of Allah Ta’ala. To believe that: 1). None can qualify or name Allah except as He or Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, named or qualified Him. 2). None can be named or qualified with Names of the Attributes that belong only to Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala. For example, none may be called ‘Al-Muhyee" (the Giver of Life) except for Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala himself. 3). We must believe in all the Ayat and Ahadeth (sahih) regarding the attributes of Allah without altering their meaning in any way whatsoever.For full list of the attributes of Allah Ta’ala: See Tawheed.
ASMAUL HUSNA (AL)
The Ninety-nine Beautiful Names (Attributes) of Allah Ta’ala. It is haram to add or to delete from the list of Attributes of Allah. It is also haram to give such attributes to anyone else. For the full list of Al-Asmaul Husna:See appendix 1
ASR (AL)
"Afternoon". The third compulsory Salat (prayer) of the day. It can be prayed at any time between mid-afternoon and a little before sunset. Surah 103 of the Holy Qur’an.
ASSALAMU ‘ALAYKUM
"Peace be on you". Greeting of the Muslims. The response to this greetings is "Wa ‘Alaikum Assalam wa Rahmatul-lahi wa Barakatuh", And on you be the Peace and Mercy of Allah and His Blessing.
AS-SIDDIQ
"The Truthful". This title was given to Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, by the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. When Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, related his experience of Al-Isra (his night journey to Masjidil Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem) Wal Mi’raj (and his ascension through the seven heavens) to Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, he immediately and without any reservation replied "Sadaqt": "You have spoken the truth". From that on Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, came to be known as Abu Bakr as-Siddiq.
ASTAGHFIRUL’LLAH
I seek forgiveness from Allah:
AURA
The part of the body that must always be concealed, except in front of spouses. 1).Man: from his navel down to just below his knees. 2). Woman: her whole body, except for her face, hands and her voice.
AWAAMIR (AL)
Snakes living in house.
AWLIYAA
Protectors, friends, supporters, helpers. Comes from the same root word as Maula. Singular: Walee.
AYAH
A verse of the Holy Qur’an. Literally means "a sign". Plural: Ayat
AYAT
Literally means signs (of Allah Ta’ala). 1). Verses of the Holy Qur’an are called Ayat because each one is a sign from Allah Ta’ala for those who understand. 2). Within the Ayat (verse) themselves Allah gives us numerous Ayat (signs), amongst which are: a) His power b) His creation (earth, heavens, universe, etc..) c) What is in store for those who reject Allah and His messengers and what is in store for the righteous who accepted Allah and His messengers.
AYAT AL-KURSI
The 255th verse of Surah al-baqarah (2) in the Holy Qur’an. See the beginning of Section (A) of this book.
AYOUB (PEACE BE ON HIM)
Job. A Prophet of Islam. He was renowned for his patience, hence the idiom "Sabr Ayoub" (the patience of Job), which means complete patience and constancy.
AYYAM AT-TASRIQ
It is a term used for eleventh, twelfth and thirteen of Dhul-Hijjah.
AYYIM
A woman who already has had a sexual experience, who maybe widowed or divorced.
AZIZ
1). "Al-’Aziz". The Almighty. One of the ninety-nine attributes of Allah Ta’ala. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Hajj (22):40. 2). Title of Egyptian nobleman during the time of the Pharaohs. Sulaikha was the wife of Aziz who tried, but failed, to tempt the Prophet Yusuf (Joseph), peace be on him, into seduction. See Holy Qur’an, Yusuf (12):23-24.
AZLAAM
Literally means "arrows". It was used in divination to seek good fortune in any decision taken by the pre-Islamic pagan Arabs. See Holy Qur’an, al-Maida (5):90.
AZL
Coitus interruptus, i.e. pulling out the penis from the vagina at the time of ejaculation of semen for the purpose of birth control,otherwise known as withrawal.
AZWAJA
Pairs, as in Husband and wife.

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