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Untitled Document
4. FASTING (SAWM) Article(s)  
Introduction to the fasting (sawm)
Literally defined, fasting means to abstain “completely” from foods, drinks, intimate intercourses and smoking, before the break of the dawn till sunset, during the entire month of Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic year.
1. Fasting in Comparative Perspective
1.The purpose of Fasting in other religions and philosophies is invariably partial. It is either for spiritual aims, or for physical needs, or for intellectual cultivations. But in Islam it is for all these gains and many other purposes, social and economic, moral and humanitarian, private and public, personal and common, inner and outer, local and national – all combined together as mentioned above.
2. The Period of Fasting
... the period of obligatory Fasting is the month of Ramadan...
3. Who Must Fast?
The Fasting of Ramadan is compulsory upon every Muslim, male or female, who has these qualifications:
4. Exemption From Fasting
The Fasting of Ramadan is compulsory upon every Muslim, male or female, who has certain qualifications mentioned before in the 3rd article. These said qualifications exclude the following categories:
5. General Recommendations
It is strongly recommended by prophet Muhammad to observe these practices especially during Ramadan

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