The tenth year after the emigration was the year when Hajj (major pilgrimage) was revealed as the final requirement of the Islamic religion. In the eleventh month of the tenth year after the emigration, Muhammad (pbuh) informed the Muslims that Hajj had been prescribed upon all Muslims who had the means to perform it. The news spread quickly to the Muslims of the neighboring lands that Muhammad intended to perform pilgrimage and as he set out for Makkah, many more delegations of Muslims joined up with him along the way. The Hajj was one of the best recorded and documented events of the Islamic message during the lifetime of Muhammad (pbuh). Countless Muslims recorded it in great detail, all the way down to the minutest aspect and nuance. The interested reader my seek any of the countless references that deal with this topic.
During this pilgrimage, Muhammad (pbuh) delivered his famous speech. On the day of Arafa, at the beginning of the Hajj Muhammad (pbuh) stood before them and delivered a lengthy sermon. At the end of this sermon he said:
"... I have left among you that which you shall never be lead astray if you adhere to it; the Book of Allah. [Verily] you shall be asked about me [on the Day of Resurrection], so what will you say?."
"We will bear witness that you have conveyed the message, discharged the ministry of Prophethood and given wise and sincere counsel."
The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) then raised his forefinger towards the sky and then pointing it at the people said: "O Allah, bear witness. O Allah bear witness," saying it thrice. Bilal then pronounced Adhan and later on Iqamah (calls to prayer) and then Muhammad (pbuh) led the prayer.
Just prior to the end of the Hajj, in the days of "Tashreeq", Muhammad (pbuh) again addressed the people and said:
"Verily your blood, your property, and your honor are as sacred and inviolable as the sacredness of this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this town of yours until the day you meet Him. Hear what I say now that you may live! Do not commit injustice! Do not commit injustice! Do not commit injustice! Verily, the wealth of a Muslim shall never be justified except with his good will. Verily, every blood or property or pride is under my feet (completely abolished) until the day of judgment. The first blood-claim which I abolish is that of the son of Rabi'ah ibn al-Harith, who was nursed among the tribe of Sa'ad and killed by Huthayl. And Allah, the Mighty, the Supreme, has ordained that the first usury to be abolished is that of [my uncle] Abbas ibn AbdulMuttalib. The 'principle' of your money (without usury) is lawful for you. Do not deal unjustly and do not be dealt with unjustly. Verily, time has made a complete cycle [and returned] to it's condition when Allah created the heavens and the earth."
He then recited: "Verily! the number of the months with Allah is twelve months. So was it ordained by Allah on the day when He created the heavens and the earth. Of them, four are sacred: that is the right religion. So wrong not yourselves therein."(Qur'an 9:36)
He continued: "Do not return after me disbelievers; some among you striking the necks of others. Verily, the Devil has lost hope that the worshipers shall worship him, but he [shall continue to] seek animosity between you..."